List of abstracts, 2015 all issues

issue 1 (9)

From the Editors
Polyakov S.

Key words: V.Karakovsky, collective education, the system of upbringing, values, relationships.

In honour of V. Karakovsky

Vladimir Karakovsky, D.Sc., professor, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Education, People's Teacher of the USSR, who devoted 60 years of his life to education of school children in Russia. He is a co-author of cooperation pedagogy. In 1988-1991, he was a chairman of the All-Russian Council for Public Education. From 1977 to 2011, he was a director of the school #825 in Moscow. In 2003, for his great personal contribution to the development of education and years of diligent work, he was awarded the Order «For Merit to the Fatherland» of the IV degree. For the years of his activity for the benefit of Moscow and Moscow citizens, he was awarded the medal «For the 850th anniversary of Moscow» (1997), and the badge «For faultless service to the city of Moscow» (2011). He was also awarded the title of Honoured School Teacher in 1971 and People's Teacher of the USSR in 1991 for his outstanding achievements in upbringing and education and his effective pedagogical activity. In 1986, Vladimir Karakovsky became the holder of the Lenin Komsomol Award for his great contribution to teaching activity, significant achievements in the development of initiative and creativity among pioneers and Komsomol members. In 1997, he became the winner of the President of the Russian Federation Prize in the field of education for the development of study guide for educational institutions «Upbringing? Upbringing… Upbringing!» Vladimir Karakovsky was convinced that «school of the future should be the school of deep education.» In one of his works, he wrote: «We think about the future school as follows: Without memory there is no history, Without history there is no culture, Without culture there is no spirituality, Without spirituality there is no education, Without education there is no Human, Without Human there are no people!» Karakovsky's ideas have had a huge impact on the development of scientific and pedagogical concepts of education and educational systems of several teachers' generations in Russia.
Kolesnikova I., Titova E.

Key words: education, upbringing, development strategy, strategic document, strategic potential, parameter, scientific and pedagogical parameters, parametric analysis.

Scientific and pedagogical quality parameters of strategic documents in the field of education

The article raises the question of the possible use of parametric analysis to examine the quality of documents defining the strategy for education development. The authors use the following methods: theoretical analysis, parametric analysis and critical reflection. The paper presents the list of conditions under which a document can be considered as strategic. The list was compiled on the basis of the key provisions of strategic management theory and Russian papers on development and management of education; and taking into account the requirements of the Federal Law "On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation", as well as methodological provisions of related scientific theories focusing on strategic management of education. The authors use the concept of "parameter" and parametric approach in the humanitarian sense relevant to the specific nature of educational systems and objects. The article substantiates the authors' vision on the system of parameters and indicators that determine a strategic potential of a document's content. These parameters include: strategic, conceptual, prospective, praxeological nature, as well as semantic certainty, safety and social responsibility in their scientific and pedagogical interpretation. The paper also presents the matrix of parametric analysis. Applying these parameters and indicators to assess the quality of a particular document, the authors analyze the project "Strategies for the Development of Education in the Russian Federation until 2025". The theoretical propositions presented in the article aimed to develop methodological bases for the designing and improving the quality of strategic documents in the field of education.
Vasileva Y., Ignatovich Y. W.

Key words: lifelong education, multi-level system of further education in Great Britain, qualification, Qualifications and Credit Framework.

The system of lifelong multi-level professional education in Great Britain

The article describes modern multi-level lifelong education system in Great Britain, identifies its national specific features, analyzes capabilities of the system to build individual student educational routes, draws a parallel with the Russian lifelong education system. The main research method is the analysis of: normative documents, official informational and educational websites content, websites of British universities and colleges, the results of the survey conducted among British experts - vocational and additional education instructors. The authors solve the translation problem of key terms, concepts and culture-specific items, justify the approaches used, and present a bilingual glossary of key terms. At the end of the article a list of promising areas to continue the research is outlined. The British education system may be considered as a dynamic multi-dimensional model of lifelong education. It is based on the Qualifications and Credit Framework, which is an instrument to connect education and economy. Nine-level Qualifications Framework standardizes the learning objectives and outcomes at each stage. General, professional and academic qualifications may be distinguished. General education has a clear professional orientation and is focused on the development of human ability to learn and make decisions regarding the use of education as a tool for career advancement. A student of any age and education level has an opportunity to complete professional education based on their capabilities (skills, willingness to learn, pace, etc.) There are no dead-end routes to complete general and further education, as various models of further education organization have been developed in the education system of Great Britain.
Klim-Klimashevska A.

Key words: lifelong education, lifelong learning, adult education, continuing professional education, non-school forms of adult learning.

Lifelong adult education in Poland

The article reviews the organization of lifelong adult education in the Republic of Poland. In modern Poland, adults can study at primary and secondary schools for adults, gymnasiums, post-lyceum schools, higher education institutions, centers for lifelong learning, practical training and professional development centers. Extracurricular forms of lifelong learning imply: postgraduate education, professional qualification courses, professional skills courses, general competences courses, improving theoretical knowledge of workers who are under age. The author pays particular attention to the system of continuing professional education of adults and working youth. The paper describes the specific features of tasks, functions and work areas of various centers (center for continuing education, agricultural center for continuing education, hands-on learning center and employment center), as well as professional organizations and associations: Professional Excellence Union, Society for the Popularization of Culture and Science, Scientific Management Association, the Union of Polish Craft, etc. The author also specifies the different types of professional development courses. The system of adult education in modern Poland is social and public, variable and flexible. It considers diverse needs of the adult population to continue education (secondary education, employment, professional development and retraining, etc.) The information provided in the article may be useful for specialists in the field of lifelong education, vocational training and comparative pedagogy.
Novichonok A., Skorikova N.

Key words: astronomy education, lifelong learning, observatory, astronomy club, planetarium, school club, school academic competition.

State and prospects of additional astronomy education of school students in Russia: continuity and variability

The paper analyzes the current state of astronomy education at schools in Russia in the situation when the subject is withdrawn from the curriculum. The authors examine the pros and cons of potential subject’s reintroduction and justify the relevance of astronomy education in the modern world. Moreover, the paper shows the main options available to school students to acquire the knowledge of astronomy such as: school and city clubs, academic competitions (winners have an opportunity to enter leading Russian universities on special terms), planetarium classes, astronomy excursions to the observatories, museums and universities, observations of interesting or rare astronomical phenomena, independent work on the Internet. The authors suggest the following ways to further develop astronomy education: modernization of astronomy component in existing general education subjects (primarily, social science, geography and physics), increasing the quantity and improving the quality of the Russian-language literature on the subject, enhancing the prestige of science and scientists in Russia. The article describes the practice of Petrozavodsk State University in creating the astronomy club for school students from grade 1 to 11. The authors outline the course structure (the division of students into two age groups, intensive and cyclical nature of the programs, variability of classes, an important role of research projects) and the means of instruction. The paper also analyzes the emerging issues, offers possible solutions and specifies the directions for the development of the proposed educational program. The authors emphasize that implementation of various astronomy projects is important for students in the framework of lifelong science education and it is improving the future university student community.
Volodina L.

Key words: values, spiritual and moral values, family education values, continuity of value development, continuous development mechanism, modification, divergence, semantic reconstruction

Continuous development of spiritual and moral values of family education: the problem of variability and stability

The article presents the author's approach to the problem of value stability and variability through the example of the historical and pedagogical study of family education value transformation, covering the period from ancient Slavic Russia (IX cent.) to 1917. The problem of moral value development is interpreted in the framework of cultural and active approach considering the values of family education as a procedural phenomenon. The author also relies on the operationalization principle, which helps capture the nuances of substantial changes in values over time in the context of "meaningful needs." It allows the author to specify the ideal of family education for a certain historical period. The value development is presented on the basis of convergence mechanisms and semantic reconstruction. This process is described as continuous and modificative. The author highlights the objectification of scientific knowledge about continuity as a separate educational reality and claims that it happens only if the source of connections between the essential features of pedagogical phenomena is revealed. The paper defines “the course of connections” in the context of the "modification" category. The author identifies the key values (family, nation, nature, state, society), which historically set the sustainable tone to Russian family education and gives an inherent value to it. Moreover, the aauthor builds a thesaurus and describes the spiritual and moral values of family education. The proposed theoretical approach allows us to see the origins and contradictions of pedagogical ideal of family education in modern Russian society. The value system applied to the Russian tradition forms the content of this ideal. The approach may also be applied for the research of stability and variability of pedagogical reality, as well as for the problem development of family education values in modern Russia.
Daxner M.

Key words: military intervention, culture development, education, creativity, social learning.

Creativity and cultural unfolding under military intervention

An article deals with a problem of creativity and cultural unfolding under military intervention. This is interdisciplinary one and integrates the social, political, cultural, and pedagogical aspects. The author uses his own experience in the Balkans and Afghanistan as an advisor on culture and education. There is a look into the situation for social and educational development during war and violence and in post-war period. The questions are put: How is youth growing up in a society that has not known peace for more than three generations? Are there any specific new kinds of education in times of military intervention? How the military conditions produce or hinder the development of talents and the making of maturing personalities? How can formal and informal education come together in times, when the concepts for qualifying capacities and forming open personalities are either changing or not even touched in order to prevent unrest? The author considers creativity as a survival art within the range of new capacities and says about system of values and virtues, which are shifted during military intervention. Creativity is opposite to the passivity and indifference produced by the conflicts and the war experiences. The following conclusions are offered: the war interrupts a formal education; the wars and violence change the deontology of whole people and its sub-structures but the generation of survivors will be the generation of teachers for the post-war youth. Creativity in a post-war situation is a source of cultural development and social learning for youth. If the education system will be open, creativity will be set free as a spin off. That's why education and schooling must be represented at all round tables where decisions for the future governance of the country under intervention are taken.
Pevsner M., Petryakov P.

Key words: International Academy, lifelong education, intercultural communication, scientific and educational project, project consortium, bilingual dictionary.

International academy as a source for lifelong education of modern scientists

Using the example of the International Academy for the Humanization of Education (IAHE), the article reveals the role of international academies as the source and resource for lifelong education of modern scientists. The article discusses the characteristics of an international academy as an intercultural environment for the exchange of information and innovative ideas in academic and professional fields. The authors outline the topics of the IAHE congresses, which gave impetus to the modernization of higher and secondary education in different countries, as well as to continuous update of scientific knowledge in the field of education. The article analyzes the features of intercultural communication within international project teams made up with the Academy members. Moreover, it highlights an important role of scientific and educational projects in the system of lifelong learning, which, due to the stability of their results, contribute to the expansion of a new scientific knowledge application at academic institutions in different countries. Networking between these institutions within a project consortium allows them to integrate their scientific potential and provide a synergistic effect in the scientific and educational process. The authors draw attention to the importance of bilingual dictionaries for the improvement of the Academy members’ linguistic competence in the field of scientific and professional communication. The article underlines the important socio-political mission of international academies during international tensions. Scientists from different countries, who are committed to the ideals of peace, humanism and democracy, and are willing to preserve the unity of the world and European cultural and educational environment, support this mission.
Izmagurova V.

Key words: coaching, positive psychology, dialogue, the technology of goal achievement, psychotechnology, innovations in education, developing intellectual environments, continuous joint development.

The concept of continuous joint development as the basis of the coaching methodology

The article aims to present the benefits of a coaching approach for personal development and problem solving in different situations: transformation of family relations, career development, creative self-determination, finding additional resources to solve problems in the process of student-centered learning. At the present time, a scientific concept of coaching methodology based on constructivism and positive psychology is being formed. The paper proposes a definition of coaching and analyzes how it differs from psychotherapy, psychological counselling, training and mentoring. In particular, the result of coaching is achieved by emphasizing and fulfilling the potential of a coaching partner as opposed to psychotherapeutic work with the past, resulting in compensation and overcoming client's weaknesses. Coaching is a system of methods aimed at working with potential future of a coaching partner, designing the best result for their future. Conscious designing of the best future is possible because this process begins with identifying a true goal of a coaching partner, which supports the motivation for changes. The author uses the concept of dialogic nature of consciousness to analyze the psychological structure of the coaching process and its effectiveness. The article emphasizes the importance of the idea of continuous and maximum possible joint development of the coaching participants and the environment. The author presents the role of a coaching approach for education and student development as an effective response to the challenges of modern information society. The author also gives the examples of practical application of coaching, describes its methods, in particular, the "wheel of life balance." In the long term, the author views coaching as one of the main technologies for creating developing intelligent environments. Their distinguishing feature will be the presence of new developing communication technologies.
Selivanov V., Selivanova L.

Key words: learning programs in a virtual reality; operations, forms and processes of thinking; effect of presence; animation; images of a virtual reality; a method, means, technology of teaching

Effectiveness of the use of virtual reality for youth and adult education

The paper emphasizes the viability of the use of training programs in virtual reality (VR) to teach school students and adult learners. In the course of an experiment, 5 study programs on biology and geometry for high school students were created in a virtual environment and finalized in «Unity», a multi-platform tool for creating 3D-images. The author analyzes an impact of VR-study programs on thinking and other cognitive processes, as well as on some personality traits and concludes that study programs created in a virtual reality stimulate thinking. VR contributes to the progressive development of procedural and operational characteristics of thinking; it then results in more successful problem-solving. Virtual reality simulates task components and significantly increases creativity. Studying with VR programs improves traditional indicators of short-term visual memory, observation, stability, attention focusing, an ability to generalize and classify, and it also improves field independence (cognitive style). In general, a virtual learning environment is an effective teaching method, tool and technology, especially for adults. A negative impact of virtual reality is fragmentary and adjustable.
Kuzmina I.

Key words: diagnostics, values, patriotic consciousness of school students, diagnostic tools, educational process participants.

Patriotic consciousness of educational process participants: theoretical foundations of value diagnostics

The article aims to present the author's methodological approach to modeling the process of patriotic education at school. The paper also presents the results of a pilot study on value orientations in the field of patriotic consciousness of modern school education process participants - students, teachers and parents. The study was conducted on the basis of school #305 (Frunzensky District, St. Petersburg) as part of collective experimental work. The research objective is to identify the level of emotional attitude towards the homeland among students of all ages; define in which directions and positions the formation of identity with their homeland is lagging behind; identify the areas of planning educational work to instil patriotic consciousness at school. The author uses the following methods: theoretical analysis, theoretical modeling and questionnaire (in total, 560 students from grade 2 to 11 participated in it). The author methodologically substantiates a theoretical model of patriotic education in a multi-ethnic educational environment based on: a) the interpretation of "Homeland" concept proposed by E.Baryshnikov; b) integration of identities concept proposed by I.Nabok, c) diagnostic criteria for moral development and education designed by A.Dumcheva. The article also outlines diagnostic criteria and indicators of values in the field of patriotic consciousness among students. The questionnaire results, educationally interpreted and graphically represented in diagrams, lead to the conclusion that there are risks of alienation from the Russian ethnic identity at the level of value consciousness among Russian school students. This will hinder the development of civic identity among students who are separated from the national culture. The proposed approach can be applied for the comparative studies of value orientations in the field of patriotic consciousness; for the study of patriotic education effectiveness among school students; and for the development of educational work to form patriotic consciousness among students at different levels of education.
Kupriyanov B.

Key words: collective subject of an educational activity, pedagogical teams, mechanisms of educational influence.

Pedagogical team as a social organism (Metaphorical representation of the concept)

The article is dedicated to pedagogical teams, one of the historically unique traditions of children social education in Russia. The author considers pedagogical teams as a collective subject of educational activity and as a flexible social and pedagogical entity. Pedagogical teams originated in the second half of the 1960s – the beginning of 1970s. It became a mass social movement in the mid-1980s. The theoretical propositions and conclusions are based on model descriptions of V.Lantsberg and M.Kordonsky's informal associations, Russian dissertations, the practices of pedagogical teams in Kostroma, and a retrospective analysis of the author’s experience as a counselor of the Russian Children's Center "Orlyonok" and the head of pedagogical teams in Kostroma region in a span of twenty years. The article explains the ambiguity of the “pedagogical team” concept and presents four different areas of its existence, shows the variety of its activity and continuity as a social and pedagogical entity. In a metaphorical way the author characterizes the main directions and influence channels of young teacher associations on children and adolescents, particularly at different recreation camps. Presenting the pedagogical team as a living social entity, the author puts forward the hypothesis that relatively complex pedagogical tasks can be solved with very limited resources through the following channels: communication, practices and corporate culture of pedagogical groups. The article may be useful as a historical and pedagogical study helping understand the distinctive features of the Russian pedagogical practice and socio-psychological, socio-cultural mechanisms of education of children and adolescents.

issue 2 (10)

From the Editors
Kolesnikova I.

Key words: futurology, scientific forecasting in pedagogy, post-humanity, person of the future.

The pedagogical query about the person of the future

The article aims to draw scientific attention to the development of the person of the future. Using the method of reflection, the author attempts to assess in the pedagogical context the prospects of the changes in human nature. The background of these changes is historical and cultural and can be seen in post-non-classical science. Given the recent trend to expand anthropology and cultural studies into «humanology», which summarizes the post-human concepts of existence and the knowledge of natural and artificial intelligence, it is necessary to determine a place and role of pedagogy in this new system of knowledge. The article discusses the following questions: which prospects of a future human transformation modern pedagogical science can anticipate in order to consciously encourage (or hinder) their implementation; what the role of education in its conventional sense would be; to what extent those who have pedagogical knowledge are ready to actively participate in building educational scenarios of the future. The author points out the presence of certain hypothetical mechanisms of human nature improvement, which have already been somehow identified in the theoretical and practical experience of humankind. Among them are the creation of people with socially useful characteristics by «genetic selection»; moral personal transformation, natural evolution during the formation of the noosphere; co-evolutionary development in the human/technology system, etc. Potential pedagogical consequences and risks of possible human changes are considered in the article. The author sets the task of moral and ethical training of specialists involved in projects related to human transformation technology research. The conclusions presented in the article are debatable and may give an impulse to the professional discussion in the field of philosophy of education and educational technologies.
Bermous A.

Key words: modernization, teacher education, conceptual bases of modernization, reform policy, education research.

Conceptual problems at the modern phase of teacher education modernization in Russia

The subject of the presented research is «the language of reforms» as a set of ideas, meanings and concepts that are at the heart of teacher education modernization. The main conceptual problem is a significant limitation of formal requirements, which are the grounds for pedagogical education modernization. In order to identify possible conceptual modernization resources, the article examines the practice of similar reforms in Western countries, including Sweden, the UK, Norway, the USA and others. The author shows the need for: a) scientific and information support of all the measures taken; b) comparative analysis of teacher education contribution to social development; c) correlation between the requirements of standards and quality indicators of general and professional teacher education. The paper presents the factor of modernization as an identification and design of teacher image evolution in socio-cultural and professional contexts, as well as their level differentiation depending on job performance and years of experience. Each modernization stage should be assessed based on the set of parameters, including performance, characteristics of individual and system development, and the environment quality. An important requirement for the performance evaluation is a constant study of the correlation between the political setting and the results achieved, which defines trends and bases of the reform. The author concludes that not only internal conditions and sources should be taken into account during the process of teacher education modernization, but also the global changes in education setting in the modern world.
Ignatovich Y.

Key words: continuing education, additional education, further professional education, university student, readiness to education, subject of education.

University student as a subject of continuing education: readiness for additional and further professional education

The article discusses the inclusion of university students into additional and further professional education system as a necessary condition for the development of continuing education. The author describes the initial results of a comprehensive study carried out at the Laboratory of Continuing Education (Petrozavodsk State University) in 2013−2015. The main research methods include: questionnaire among second-, third- and fourth-year students at Petrozavodsk State University (1509 students); focus groups (3 groups, 16 students); interviews with senior students of the Philology Faculty at Petrozavodsk State University (48 students). The inclusion of students into additional and further professional education system is a multi-factor process. A conscious choice, maturity of ideas about future professional activities, set of competencies for the analysis and forecasting of the labour market situation in the selected professional field play an important role. The analysis of written and oral surveys revealed the lack of students’ readiness for continuing education. Choosing an occupation at the stage of professional self-determination and the ability to recognize oneself as a subject of education are important to develop the readiness for continuing education. The study revealed a lack of awareness of chosen working activities as well as of the nature and possibilities of additional and further professional education programs. The survey results show that most respondents do not have an idea of how to expand their main education through additional programs. The nature of certain responses allows the author to state an insufficient development of learning skills among students and low ability to manage their own learning process. An ability to assess their educational results and design further educational routes considering future professional tasks are poorly developed as well. Not only the students but also universities have little understanding of modern students’ professional needs. There is a need for a systematic approach to solving problems.
Glebova G., Gracheva Y.

Key words: professional identity development, professional choice, organizational and administrative terms, social partnership of university and secondary school, center for promotion of youth employment.

Problems and optimization conditions of students' professional identity development (the practice of smolensk state university)

The article discusses the actions taken by higher education institutions to develop the readiness for professional self-determination and professional choice among students, as well as the conditions for optimization of this process. The proposed conclusions are based on: regulatory framework for the activities of higher education institutions on career guidance; the analysis of career guidance activities in the Russian regions based on the statistics of 2010−2015; the data of the author's experimental research in 2006−2013 at educational institutions of the Smolensk region. The significance of the problem is determined by the lack of demand for young graduates in the job market, which results from unsystematic and inconsistent activities of educational institutions, employers, employment services and public authorities responsible for personal and professional development of young people. The article discusses the concept of «students' professional identity development». The authors draw attention to the work of centres for promotion of university graduates’ employment as an institutional framework for the development of career guidance work at higher education institutions. The article also reveals the comparative characteristics and content of the centers’ activities. The authors analyze the place of students in the sphere of professional identity development and the readiness of university instructors to support it. The paper considers the specific features of the Smolensk State University social partnership in the field of career guidance at different levels of continuing education. It also outlines the conditions for the effectiveness of professional self-determination of young people. The authors present collaboration between universities and secondary schools on professional identity development of high school students as well as universities’ initiative on that as the prerequisites for the optimization of career guidance process.
Miroshnikova O.

Key words: standardization in education system, standards-based education, competency-based education, outcome-based education.

Standards-based education

Modern scientific vocabulary of lifelong learning is wide. There are a lot of related terms in the field of education standardization, the meaning of which though being rather close, may still differ greatly. The article reviews linguistic, historical, social, cultural and pedagogical senses of such widely used English concepts as «standards-based education», «an outcome-based education», «competency-based education» / «competency-based learning». The author tries to differentiate the meaning of the terms «standards-based education», «competency-based education» and «performance-based education». The difference in interpreting competency-based approach within Russian and American academic communities is observed. The author analyzes the standardization methods applied in our native and foreign education systems, compares «American» and «Russian» school system standardization models, their advantages and disadvantages, and describes the results of standards-based school reform in the USA. The author applies interdisciplinary approach, comparative analysis method, word frequency analysis, web-based search method. The research base includes over 70 Russian and English scientific sources including general education standards and professional teacher standards elaborated in Australia, Great Britain, New Zealand, the USA, as well as the Russian first- and second-generation state educational standards, the professional standard «Teacher (teaching activities in the field of pre-school, primary general, basic general, secondary education) (preschool teacher, teacher)» (Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation of October 18, 2013). The article may be of some interest for school and university teachers and educators, postgraduates in pedagogy, translators of pedagogic literature, education managers and standards-policy-makers and all the readers interested in standardization in education field.
Melnikova A.

Key words: continuous education, social and cultural meanings, axiological analysis, video sequence.

Continuing education from Silicon Valley: axiological analysis of the video

The article presents the author's version of cross-cultural trend development in the study of continuous education. As a research method, the author uses the analysis of the video sequence – specifically, of the drawings accompanying the website text of Deloitte's Center for the Edge, which specializes in continuing education among other things and is based in Silicon Valley. The author notices a tendency to transfer and implement the ideas generated within one culture into other countries' cultures. This process is active in the field of education. The paper emphasizes the need to analyze educational ideas of other cultures as well as general socio-cultural meanings behind them and to find out whether they are in accordance with the socio-cultural and educational meanings dominating in a receiving culture. Integrating psychological, linguistic and cultural approaches, the author offers the methodology for determining these meanings in visual images and then analyzes the video sequence featured on the website, identifying the dominant socio-cultural meanings behind the images. These meanings mediate educational values. As a result, the common semantic component of all homepage images is found. The author interprets it in the context of current values and meanings of continuing education model offered by the Centre. This component deals with three areas - the world picture as a whole, environment and human being. This common axiological component is fully consistent with the Centre's idea of staff continuous education with a pragmatic semantic message well-defined on the visual and verbal levels. The proposed research methodology and theoretical conclusions will be of interest for professionals involved in the strategy implementation of educational ideas and models of other cultures, as well as for researchers in the field of comparative pedagogy.
Hildebrandt E., Marty A., Stommel S.

Key words: team teaching, co-teaching, cooperation, collaboration, meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, teacher education.

Team teaching: the review of international empirical research

Teamwork and team teaching are integral to educational practice, for instance in the case of integrative or inclusive education aiming to support the development of children with special needs. In addition, team teaching has increasingly been used to prepare students for teaching practice and during the practice itself. The results of the study assessing effectiveness and potential of team teaching are considered as contradictory, due to (among other things) an undifferential use of the concept and the breadth of the research tasks. In English-speaking countries, the study of team teaching started earlier than in German-speaking countries. Therefore, the authors review empirically gathered practices of English-speaking countries. They consider various models of understanding the team teaching method and highlight they key points of the concept definitions. Then, based on meta-analysis and meta-synthesis, they summarize the results of the following studies: Armstrong (1977): Team teaching and student performance. Armstrong (1977): Teamteaching und Schülerleistungen. Schustereit (1980): Team teaching and student performance. Schustereit (1980): Teamteaching und Schülerleistungen. Murawski und Swanson (2001): Meta-analysis of team teaching. Where is the data? Murawski und Swanson (2001): Eine Meta-Analyse zu Teamteaching. Wo sind die Daten? Scruggs, Mastropieri und McDuffie (2007): Team teaching in inclusive education: meta-synthese of qualitative studies. Scruggs, Mastropieri und McDuffie (2007): Teamteaching im inklusiven Unterricht: eine Metasynthese qualitativer Studien  Baeten und Simons (2014): Team teaching in teacher training: models, effectiveness and conditions for implementation. Baeten und Simons (2014): Teamteaching in der Lehrerbildung: Modelle, Effekte und Bedingungen zur Implementation. The analysis of the presented studies shows that the team teaching method has been studied through quantitative research of its impact on student performance. Such studies provide ambiguous, often contradictory effectiveness indicators. Qualitative studies of this phenomenon have revealed the overall positive trends of team teaching
Lebedeva S.

Key words: lifelong learning, inclusive education, visually impaired people, library for the blind and visually impaired.

Libraries for visually impaired people as a component of lifelong education system and a factor of increasing the quality of socio-educational and socio-cultural services

The article analyzes social, cultural and educational functions of modern libraries for visually impaired people. The paper considers specialized libraries as a component of lifelong learning system. The author identifies the factors that contribute to the expansion of educational and socio-cultural environment for visually impaired people in modern Russia. It includes the regulatory framework of social service improvement, implementation of regional socio-cultural programs, system of training blind and visually impaired people to work in a new information environment, etc. Through the example of St. Petersburg State Library for the Blind and Visually Impaired as well as some other regional libraries, the author shows the wide range of their interaction with people. The article demonstrates: multifunctionality of libraries as social, cultural and educational institutions; their focus on different activities (training, education, leisure of the visually impaired, training and continuing professional education of specialists and librarians working with them); and different age of visually impaired people. Modern libraries are currently in a position when they can and should have a systemic impact on the development and education of not only visually impaired people, but also a broad range of professionals, social workers and volunteers working in the field of education for people with health problems.
Knight S.

Key words: knowledge, knowledge search, search engines, search strategies, social networks, information filters, metacognitive skills.

Finding knowledge: what is it to «know» when we search?

The article discusses the epistemological implications of people’s social and technical interactions with information including those important for education. The author analyzes search in an open informational environment as a specific educational tool. The author seeks to answer the questions: what the role of search functions in gaining knowledge is; how they affect students' understanding of the information and teachers' assessment of students' knowledge; how users evaluate the quality and impact of the informational sources they use. The paper examines the role of modern search engines and social networks as sources and media of different search strategies and information representation. It compares the targets of different search engines (Google, Bing Social, DuckDuckGo), social networks (Facebook), technologies and apps (Semantic Web, Facebook Graph Search, Tumblr). The author shows different options of information bias arising from the filter bubble. He draws attention to the fact that search engines through personalization and demographic characteristics filter SERPs to provide individuals with biased information, affirming prior beliefs. The article develops the idea of preparing a person for diversity-aware search and understanding the broader knowledge context. The goal is to develop search engines that can both personalize information and reduce the risks of testimonial injustice and hermeneutical injustice. The paper highlights the importance of developing the initial position of a search engine user aiming to check, filter, analyze and evaluate the information obtained as well as understand the knowledge gaps. This poses the question of what is "knowledge" and how it may be assessed within the educational system. It also sets the task of developing the ability to think critically and evaluate judgements and information obtained as a result of the search for knowledge. The proposed conclusions will be interesting to researchers in the field of education philosophy, experts in IT, school teachers, university instructors and continuing professional development instructors. The article is translated into Russian and provided with the necessary translator’s comments with the author’s and publisher’s (Institute of Network Cultures in Amsterdam) permission under the Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0). Originally published: Knight Simon. Finding Knowledge: What Is It to 'Know' When We Search? / Society of the Query Reader. R.König and M.Rasch. - Institute of Network Cultures, 2014, pp. 227-238. Simon Knight‘s research focuses on student’s epistemic practices in information seeking. Following teaching high school philosophy and psychology, he completed his MA in philosophy of education exploring the implications of the ‘extended mind’ thesis for our understanding of knowledge and its assessment. That work particularly focused on the Danish use of internet in examinations, asking the question ‘Is Wikipedia a part of my extended mind?’ He then completed an MPhil in Educational research, focusing on the epistemic dialogue children used in collaborative information seeking tasks. His PhD work at the UK’s Open University continues this line of research, applying learning analytic techniques to the exploration of epistemic dialogue and commitments in collaborative information seeking. English version of the text is open access, URL:
Lovink G.

Key words: social media, social networks, participatory culture, free services, «Unlike Us».

A world beyond Facebook

The article discusses social media development and socio-economic mechanisms of social network transformation. The author specifies the term "social media", stresses the distinctive features of social networks as objects of study; shows the dual nature of social media involved in contradictory processes: facilitation of a free information exchange along with commercial exploitation of social relations. Through social self-reflection, the author shows contradictions and risks of the democratized Internet and provides a number of examples. Studies of social media revealed panic among young people because of the privacy threats. In exchange for a user-friendly interface, society got less complex communication and reduced user's freedom. Typical actions (adding new friends to a group, liking, sharing, updating social media) create new levels of interaction between people. As a result, complex social relations are placed in a position where there are only "friends". The article expresses the idea of personal refusal to be involved in popular social networks such as Facebook. The author describes a special network «Unlike Us» focused on the study of social media monopolies and their alternatives. The network is founded by the Institute of Network Cultures in collaboration with Korinna Patelis (Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol). “Unlike Us” is primarily interested in a broad arts and humanities angle also called web aesthetics and a possibility to transform the internet into a truly independent public infrastructure that can effectively defend itself against corporate domination and state control. The presented article will be interesting to researchers of social and economic, communication, information and education aspects of social media and modern internet culture. The article is translated into Russian and provided with the necessary translator’s comments with the author’s and publisher’s (Institute of Network Cultures in Amsterdam) permission under the Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0). Originally published: Geert Lovink. A World Beyond Facebook: Introduction to the Unlike Us Reader / Unlike Us Reader. Social Media Monopolies and Their Alternatives / Editors: Geert Lovink and Miriam Rasch.- Publisher: Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam, 2013, pp.9-16 English version of the text is open access, URL: The full text URL:
Gorchakova-Sibirskaya M.

Key words: egomarketing, imageology, post-industrial society, professional competence, human capital, personal fulfillment.

«Egomarketing» and «imageology» in the context of continuing education

The article reveals differences and similarities between the two emerging areas of scientific and practical knowledge, which have become relevant in the post-industrial society: egomarketing and imageology. The author shows the need for their development through continuous education system. The analysis of the history and essence of egomarketing concept showed that it emerged as a response to the need for competent professionals, development and improvement of individual’s intellectual potential and complete fulfillment. Comparing the characteristics of industrial age evolution, we can evaluate the requirements for the employees’ skill sets at every stage of their development and correlation between education level and these requirements. Failure to resolve the contradictions between the needs of production and the level of staff training has resulted in the development of egomarketing. There are a lot of similarities and differences between the concepts of imageology and egomarketing; they are related, interdependent and subordinate. Imageology and egomarketing are similar in terms of reliance on human capital in achieving the goals. Besides, the tools to achieve the goals are based on the methods of personal development. The differences are associated with the result: imageology results in emotional and psychological impact on the target audience, while egomarketing results in achieving a specific result, success. From the standpoint of continuing education, the author substantiates the need for mastering imageology and egomarketing by everyone. It aims at career growth, professional self-development, successful social adjustment, building social communication with others, choosing the best individual path for mastering a new profession, self-realization in social life and in professional activities, and, finally, personal success. The proposed conclusions will be interesting for education managers and researchers, university instructors and continuing education instructors.

issue 3 (11)

From the Editors
Sulima I.

Key words: human, education, history, tradition, culture, intentionality, communication.

Anthropological dialectics of education and tradition

The article is dedicated to the relationship between a human being, education, and tradition. Based on the ideas of H.-G. Gadamer, W. Dilthey, M. Scheler, M. Mamardashvili, M. Heidegger, K. Jaspers, the author considers education as a form of daily exposure to Tradition which is intended to bring person back to their memory and encourage conscience, honour, the pursuit of beauty, freedom, etc.) A human path is taken through what is accepted and deeply rooted in history. The purpose of education is to be on this path. And the unity of a protective function gives a common ground to education and philosophical hermeneutics. If school is focused only on the development of rational abilities of students, their knowledge and skills, it is not able to preserve the Tradition. Co-existential nature of humanistically oriented education implies the establishment of relations with the events, including historical events. However, the author states that we should not be restricted to rational perception of the facts that occurred in the past. The education system is able to play a stabilizing role preserving ancestral heritage and communicating core values to the younger generation. The article emphasizes a multidimensional nature of the process of finding the past. In particular, it draws attention to the development of a personwhile being verbally exposed to Tradition, to aesthetic and the role of art. Possible self-preservation of education is supported by the core of Tradition, basic human values, and, in this regard, the formation of the ideal. In addition – by the reference to classical education with its philosophical and historical components aimed to develop Homo traditionale. Education aims to allow an individual to perceive slightly what lies at the heart of everything. Everything else can be learned without enlightenment and experiencing Tradition, can be found in documents, on the Internet, in any information medium.
Terentyev K.

Key words: educational strategy, lifelong education, functions of the education system, youth, higher education, prospective student, university student, labour market, statistical analysis.

Educational strategies of university applicants: the development of classifications

The article presents the author's classification of educational strategies of young people obtaining higher professional education. The classification is based on the theoretical analysis of the stated problems and on the data of empirical sociological surveys. The theoretical analysis helps to describe the matrix classification. The main motivation areas for higher education are identified on the basis of a questionnaire among freshmen (1407 participants) conducted by the Laboratory of Sociological Research at Petrozavodsk State University in 2012–2014 and the use of methods of descriptive and analytical statistics, in particular, cluster and factor analysis. The analysis results show that educational strategies are often complex and heterogeneous. The most important motivation areas are: motivation for quality professional education (professionally or educationally oriented strategy); motivation for the acquisition of social status due to studying in a formal educational institution (student status) and the acquisition of an educational certificate (diploma). Both of these motivations can be implemented in an active and indifferent manner. Empirical analysis has shown that active educational strategies form a continuum with clearly defined professional- and status-oriented motivation. The article considers content and quantitative characteristics of the identified strategies. The reasoning provided by the author may be used for further studies of educational strategies including the use of qualitative research strategies and a larger number of social factors that lead to educational choice.
Smirnova S.

Key words: primary education, standard, professional standard, professional competence, job functions, work activities.

Successive relations between the Federal State Higher Education Standard ("Teacher Education") and Teacher Professional Standard

The article aims to review the successive relations between the two Russian educational standards– primary school teacher training standard and teacher professional standard. The following methods are used: theoretical analysis of regulatory documents, questionnaire, comparison of work activities and professional competencies. The author analyzes the results of the questionnaire among teachers evaluating their readiness to implement general educational program of primary education in accordance with the Federal State Education Standard. Teachers of 13 educational institutions from 5 municipal districts of Karelia and 2 institutions of Leningradsky and Murmansky District participated in it. As a result, the following criteria of teachers’ readiness to work in a new environment are identified: motivation, legal awareness, knowledge of modern pedagogical technologies, and knowledge of modern student’s psychology. The author also identifies the difficulties of working on the new standards and reveals the underdeveloped competencies of future primary school teachers. Teachers are willing to enhance the practical side of teachers’ continuing education; therefore the paper presents the most popular professional issues to be addressed and the preferred forms of teachers’ training. The author compares the job functions stated in the teacher professional standard with the professional competencies identified in the Federal State Higher Education Standard 44.03.01 «Teacher Education» (undergraduate level, B.A., B.A.A.) and assumes that a graduate might not be ready to fully perform the job functions. In addition to that, some professional competencies are not reflected in the list of teacher’s work activities. Particularly, these are the competencies related to certain types of cultural-educational, project and research activity. The author’s conclusions and recommendations may be used to improve the education standards and may also be taken into consideration by organizers and participants of the system of continuous primary school teachers’ education.
Babakova T.

Key words: post-nonclassical science, principle of additionality, national and regional component of education content, ecological education for sustainable development, ecosystemic cognitive model.

Implementation of the principle of additionality through highlighting an ecological component within a regional component of school education

The article justifies viability and feasibility of building a national and regional component of education content in the context of the principle of additionality as a methodological principle of post-nonclassical science. The possible realization of a regional component from the standpoint of this principle is exemplified by highlighting an ecological component in teaching biology as part of the project «My Karelia». The following methods are used: source analysis; comparative analysis of educational opportunities of a national and regional component and characteristics of ecology education for sustainable development; instructional design. As a result, the purpose of a national and regional component in school education is specified and its educational opportunities are formulated. Among them: expanding students' knowledge of reality; interdisciplinarity (aspects of humanities and natural sciences); interconnection between levels of education (global, national, regional); person-centered approach; development of values and motivating needs; exposure to practice-oriented activities related to the study of the region and practical application of acquired knowledge, etc. The article shows the possibility of teaching biological aspects as part of a regional component on the basis of a modern concept of general ecological education for sustainable development. This happens through the implementation of an ecosystemic, multi-disciplinary, problem-oriented, regional, activity-based, axiological approach in the context of the principle of additional education. The author suggests the ways and means of applying these approaches to update the content of textbooks, tutorials, interdisciplinary projects and workshops. The conclusions proposed and the ecosystemic cognitive model developed by the author have methodological significance for further development of the regional component of education.
Kuzmenkova L.

Key words: voluntariness, volunteer, motivation, motive, responsibility, will, self-examination.

The dynamics of voluntary motives among the individuals of the helping professions

The article describes the results of a study identifying the patterns of motives for voluntary activities, as well as the ability to control and regulate them. The following methods of practical psychology were used: bibliographical, interview, survey, questionnaire, self-examination, analysis of outcomes, experimental set-up, processing and interpretation of results. Psychology students of St. Petersburg State University of Fire Service under the Russian Emergency Ministry and St. Petersburg Institute of Psychology and Social Work participated in the experiment conducted from 2010 to 2015. The analysis of the students’ planning work, their diary entries, questionnaires and interviews led to the following conclusions: in the process of completion of a 30-day assignment, students occasionally experienced crises caused by a conflict between motives and results of activity. Those students who noted positive moments on a daily basis and used verbal affirmations regarding their targets remained productive in achieving their goals for a longer period of time. The obtained results may be used for volunteer work. The author concludes that organizational regulations to support the voluntary nature of activities and maintain volunteers’ performance capacity will be more effective if: a) volunteers are informed about a possible conflict between motives and results; b) all concerned parties are taught the methods and techniques of solving the crises; c) leaders and organizers use non-financial incentives phase-by-phase (considering regularities in crisis periods).
Borovskih Y., Smirnova E.

Key words: University brand in the views of prospective students of moscow universities

University brand in the views of prospective students of Moscow universities

The article discusses the concept of «a university brand», which was introduced to scientific vocabulary by a Russian researcher V. Glazychev, and analyzes its meaning in social sciences and marketing. Based on social research, the authors examine the relationship between a theoretical understanding of a university brand and the role of educational brands in choosing a university. The research was conducted in 2012 in qualitative methodology among first-year students of sociology at Moscow universities (24 interviews in total). The aim of the study was to obtain more specific information about the phenomenon of a university brand and revealing its qualitative characteristics. Theoretical principles of brand sociology developed by the founder of this concept Alexander Dayksel and his followers formed the basis for the findings presented in the article. The authors conclude that brand is a social phenomenon, it is not fully developed yet but its certain characteristics are present among students. Prospective students consider them assessing and choosing a university. In this case, university needs to maintain its identity and develop its specific features against the background of current global changes in the education system (such as the Unified State Exam, transition to the Bologna system, standardization of educational programs, commercialization of higher education institution, etc.) The findings may be useful for heads of universities as well as for instructors, prospective students and their parents.
Lebedinsky I., Lebedinskaya T.

Key words: imagology, acculturation, international seminar, cross-cultural research, intercultural dialogue.

International scientific seminar "St. Petersburg - Ukraine" in the framework of imagology as a practice of intercultural understanding

The authors present fifteen years of their experience (2000–2015) of organizing and participating in international seminars «St. Petersburg – Ukraine» devoted to mutual influence and interpenetration of Slavic cultures. The paper considers a permanent seminar as a form of international scientific cooperation in the context of imagology, a field of humanities related to the study of «the image of the Other» in social and cultural consciousness. The article describes the themes of the seminars, statistical data on the participants and analyzes main scientific, cultural-educational, and practical results. The following results are revealed: development of an interdisciplinary humanities discourse addressing the problems of interaction between Slavic cultures; discovery of new historical facts and research directions in the field of cross-cultural relationships between the Slavic peoples and world nations which remove perception stereotypes; description of past situations that are perceived by contemporaries as historical paradoxes due to the lack of knowledge of the realities linking different nationalities and cultures; integrated development of the theme «St. Petersburg and Ukraine». The article also gives the examples of publishing and exhibition activities as well as diverse social activities in the field of intercultural interaction between representatives of Russia, Ukraine and other countries implemented through the seminars. In addition to that, the authors mention tension that has been arising lately between historically similar cultures. The authors consider intercultural relations in the system of scientific communication and informal education as a way to promote tolerance. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of comparative cultural studies, the history of the Slavic peoples, to researchers who study St. Petersburg and the literary heritage of T. Shevchenko, as well as to those involved in diplomatic services.
Gavrilova L.

Key words: professional development, multimedia technologies, music teachers, methodological approach, principle of education.

Methodological approaches and principles of using multimedia technologies for professional development of music teachers

The article focuses on a topical problem of contemporary art education, which includes an implementation of multimedia learning tools into the process of professional development of music teachers. The author analyzes the philosophical and general scientific methodological guidelines of using multimedia tools, including a systemic, personal, activity, synergetic, axiological, akmeological and competence-based approaches. The article examines the following principles of music teachers’ professional development through multimedia technologies: the principle of informatization of education; visualization supported with multimedia aids; optimal choice of teaching aids; an integration of traditional approaches to music education with innovative multimedia technologies; purposeful interaction and creative cooperation between teacher and students; promotion of creative musical activities and personal self-expression. Adherence to these principles and methodological approaches determines effective professional development of music teachers through the means of multimedia technologies. Furthermore, the author lists the groups of multimedia tools and provides references to the author’s personal and educational web-page «Multimedia technologies in music education». The proposed theoretical conclusions may be used in the system of continuing education of music teachers including the development of multimedia tools.
Barinov E., Nikolenko O., Balykina A., Tverdokhleb T.

Key words: distance learning technologies, management of students' self-studying, fundamental knowledge of medicine, effectiveness of teaching.

Use of e-learning platforms for the management of self-studying at medical universities

The article aims to summarize the practice of using the distance learning technologies at the Department of Histology at Donetsk National Medical University, to evaluate its effectiveness and to make recommendations on the structure and content of the teaching materials to manage students' independent work. The authors analyze the organizational process of self-studying. Distance learning at the Department of Histology, Cytology and Embryology is implemented through LMS MOODLE (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment). The content is a didactic system aimed at building fundamental knowledge of medicine and professional competencies, which includes the interrelated target, methodological, learning, advising and controlling units. As a result, student workload has changed (80,7 % started to study for 2–4 hours preparing for practical sessions). The study revealed an increase in quality performance of students from 40,6 ± 7,3 % (without distance learning) to 62,5 ± 5,0 % (with distance learning) (measurement error = 0,045), which reflects the effectiveness of students' self-studying. The authors conclude that the use of distance learning technologies (specifically, Moodle e-learning platform) enables an optimal organization and therefore increases an effectiveness of self-studying for practical sessions in histology.
Korsakova N., Chistyakova M.

Key words: network cooperation, public-private partnership, educational complexes, innovations in education, integration of education and science, school mathematics education, research of school students.

Public-private partnership in the school system oriented for future scientists

The article describes the development and activities of an innovative scientific and educational complex, which integrates educational programs of different types of institutions: public general education schools, private educational institutions, additional education and scientific centers, research centers and universities. The theoretical generalization is based on the long-term cooperation between school № 564 (St. Petersburg) and the Laboratory of Continuous Mathematical Education, centered around integration and interconnection of general, additional education and research activities in the field of mathematics and natural sciences. This concept was developed by I. Chistyakov. Through the example of an educational area «Mathematics», the authors describe a model of a public-private partnership focused on the development of individual educational paths of school students motivated for research activities. The article presents a component analysis of this model, shows the specific features of organizational and pedagogical contribution to it and the division of functions between the parties of social partnership represented in the model. The authors exemplify how a network form of cooperation between different educational institutions ensures the continuity of education for future scientists. Social and educational effects of the model implementation as well as potential social and pedagogical risks are defined in the article. The paper demonstrates the possibility to create entirely new structures within public schools using the elements of the existing educational system in Russia. In particular, educational complexes that make use of selection and training system and unlock scientific potential of motivated students at an early age. The authors conclude that creation of the network of educational platformsoperating on the basis of multilevel integration of general, additional education and research in public and private educational institutions in different regions with different learning and development targets is worthwhile.

issue 4 (12)

From the Editors
Bermous A.

Key words: teacher education, cluster-modular approach, competencies, educational programs.

Cluster-modular approach to designing educational programs in continuing education system

The article is dedicated to the development of current approaches to designing the content of teacher education and educational programs ensuring the implementation of the «Project of Modernization of Teacher Education in Russia». The author analyzes the influence of a new vision and methodology of teacher education on the objectives and content of professional teacher training. It results in the formulation of cluster-modular approach as a means of complex solving of conceptual, technological and managerial problems. The categorical apparatus of competencies, resulting in different types of competencies («possession», «ability» and «readiness»), is provided in accordance with the different types of learning environments and processes. The author compares a cluster-modular and traditional (thematic) approaches to the content of teacher education, formulates the principles of modernization of educational institutions for teachers considering a cluster-modular approach. In conclusion, the paper develops a six-layer model of the description of educational programs for teachers in the context of cluster-modular approach. The article should be of interest to administrators and instructors in teacher education, students of pedagogical profiles as well as everyone who is interested in the problems of modernization of the national teacher education in Russia.
Nemirovskaya L.

Key words: teacher personality, non-formal education, motivation for learning, elderly returnees.

Teacher personality as a motivation for learning among elderly returnees in the context of non-formal education in Israel

The article is dedicated to studying motivation development among elderly people. The research is based on the practice of organizing non-formal education for elderly returnees in Israel and focuses on teacher personality as an important factor in the formation of educational motivation.The author studies the practice of the implementation of socio-educational projects under the authority of the Ministry of Immigrant Absorption, the Ministry of Education of Israel and the social department of the municipality of Yavne: a literature and psychological lecture halls (educational centres), «Musical Meetings» interest club, the newspaper for retired people. The following methods were used: survey (questionnaires, interviews), participant observation and analysis of the project activities in the field of non-formal education. The article provides a list of personal qualities and pedagogical skills of teachers, which are most valued by elderly returnees. It contains numerous examples of positive interaction between teachers and participants of various forms of adult education. The author also presents the preferred styles of interaction between teachers and students and identifies a number of conditions under which a teacher personality becomes an effective motivational factor for elderly returnees. The study shows the influence of internal motives for learning in adulthood on the improvement of personal qualities that contribute to a successful integration of elderly returnees into a new society. This area is little studied yet and the proposed findings and conclusions are of interest to researchers and organizers of adult education, as well as to researchers of lifelong learning development in Israel.
Shchegoleva L., Surovtsova T.

Key words: Unified State Exam, USE results analysis, education quality, academic performance, freshmen, applicants

The Unified State Exam results and academic performance of first-year students

The paper examines the possibility and feasibility of the use of the Unified State Exam (USE) results to identify the students who will be able to successfully continue their education at a university level. Petrozavodsk State University has the information system «Integrated Information-Analytical System of University Management (IIAS)» that allows the university to review students’ academic performance over time. The study is based on the statistical analysis of the data on the performance of first-year students at Petrozavodsk State University in comparison with the USE results from 2009 to 2013. The purpose of the research is to test the correlation between student grades and their USE results. The authors conclude that there is a positive dependence between student performance at school and their successes as university freshmen, which allows universities to take a more balanced view when ranking potential applicants by the examination results. The authors propose to monitor student performance regularly to improve the quality of education. In particular, they propose to identify first-year students that may potentially have low academic performance, to identify the possible improprieties in grading, as well as to identify the subjects for which there is a little grades differentiation during the exams. The data on student progress are considered over time to monitor the performance of student groups as well as individual students, adjusting their educational routes and providing both general and personalized approach. The conclusions obtained may reduce the amount of resources required to work with first-year students due to the proper targeting. The authors draw attention to the fact that although the university has a large amount of data related to the learning process, they are almost never used in a decision-making process. The proposed conclusions should be interesting to managers of higher education and researchers in the field of continuity of education.
Emelyanova Y.

Key words: translation, professional translator training, translation skills, lungua-ethnical barrier, culturally marked words.

Developing the skills of translating culturally marked words in the training of professional translators

The article considers the problems of the training of professional translators in the framework of university and further professional education and focuses on the development of the skills required for translating culturally marked words. The author describes the logic and methodology of the sequential development of the skills needed to translate culturally marked words, which was tested at Nizhny Novgorod State Linguistics University, School of Translation and Interpreting (specialist/bachelor degree programs) and the program of further professional education «Translator in the Field of Professional Communication». Adequacy is considered to be one of the key criteria of the quality of a translated text. One of the barriers to achieving adequacy in translation is the lingua-ethnical barrier, which includes linguistic and extra linguistic factors. The article provides a detailed description of culturally marked lexical units, outlines their specific characteristics and analyses their role in creating an adequate translation. The author then outlines the main reasons for the need to teach translation students to translate culturally marked words. The author proposes to divide the process into two stages, which should be integrated into teaching written translation at earlier stages of translator training and oral translation at more advanced stages. The author then defines the aims and objectives of each stage of the teaching process, describes the types of exercises used at each stage, provides a list of relevant skills and identifies specific approaches to working with different types of culturally marked words. The proposed methodology allows for a targeted approach to culturally marked words, which pose considerable difficulties in translation. It also allows students to expand their cultural knowledge, develop a professional approach and a set of skills needed for translating culturally marked words.
Kuznetsova N.

Key words: lifelong education, traditional society, the Old Believers, religious education.

Lifelong religious education in a traditional society: the experience of the Old Believers in Russia

The article analyzes the practice of religious education in the modern religious community of the Old Believers. The peculiarity of this practice in the Old Believers’ environment lies in its stability and viability, as evidenced by the history of the Old Believers in Russia. The content of the websites of the main Old Believers strains is a source base of the present study. Through content analysis, the author reveals that the current educational practice of the Old Believers combines several directions. The paper outlines the education forms present in the Old Believers' environment, such as formal education (religious education in educational institutions), non-formal education (spiritual courses in communities) and informal education (learning through pilgrimage, «thirst for knowledge» of other community members). Furthermore, the author describes the innovative forms of learning that have arisen in modern communities, such as youth summer camps, lecture halls and use of Internet sources. The paper traces the analogy between the Old Believers’ teaching system and a secular educational model, even though they have different values and goals. The system of lifelong religious education of the Old Believers in modern Russia is of solely communal nature but it is built taking into account the needs of the community members in raising knowledge level. The information presented in this article may be of interest to experts in the field of lifelong learning, religious scholars, and instructors at religious educational institutions.
Kolesnikova I.

Key words: adult education, standards of educational services, educational praxeology, praxeological analysis.

Standardization of educational services for adults: praxeological analysis of the practice of lesser poland voivodeship

The article presents a praxeological analysis of standardization of adult education in Lesser Poland Voivodeship. The basis for the analysis are the texts of «Lesser Poland Standards in Education and Professional Training», methodological recommendations from the «Guide to the Lesser Poland Standards,» the information from the following websites: Voivodeship Office of Employment, «European Civil Society Platform on Lifelong Learning» project, different organizations using the standards (for the period from 2012−2015). The discussed model includes 20 areas of standardization divided into 4 groups: standards related to a) the process of providing the services; b) potential of the teaching staff; c) organizational conditions, d) management of an educational institution. The article indicates the direct semantic analogies between the Standards content and the praxeological provisions of the Polish philosopher T. Kotarbinsky. The evaluation of the Standards by «praxeology» parameter revealed the following essential features: correlation between success and quality; possibility to determine and assess the aim presentation; structure of the requirements; project nature; comprehensive characteristics of the resources required to provide successful educational services. The author draws attention to the illustrative nature of the «best practices» examples for each of standardization areas; an instrumental nature of methodological recommendations aimed to improve the quality of education and addressed to participants of educational service market; as well as the guidance on what can make a competitive advantage when providing such services to adults. The analysis suggests that praxeological ideas and traditions of organizing a «good» job have influenced the development of the methodological foundations of the Standards. The assumption provides an opportunity for further discussion. The insight into the Polish version of educational services standardization will be useful for educational managers at the regional and federal levels, the developers of educational standards and experts in the field of adult education.
Kovalchuk G.

Key words: lifelong education, global framework for education areas, key indicators of education, quality of teaching, professionally significant competencies, teaching technologies, learning outcomes.

Education quality assurance in the context of lifelong learning

The article is dedicated to the issues of education quality assurance taking into account specific features of interaction between subjects of learning within a local social and economic environment and the role that they play in this process. Relying on the analysis of modern international documents and conference proceedings devoted to lifelong learning, the author summarizes current trends in lifelong learning system development aimed at ensuring the quality of life in general. In particular, the author notes that personal importance of formal education for learners decreases, while the role of non-formal (informal) educational institutions increases. The article considers the indicators of education quality that aimed at implementing educational goals and managing educational systems. The article presents a structural and functional model of the quality assurance in lifelong education at the local level of socio-economic environment. The author provides the data obtained from the survey among students (future economists) on the impact various factors have on the quality of their higher education. In addition to that, the author presents the results of the research studying how senior high school students and second-, third-year students understand education quality over time in terms of building and formation of professionally important competencies. The author concludes that education quality assurance is directly focused on the goal achievement of students and their parents as subjects of local socio-economic environment. Furthermore, the paper shows modern education risks related to the substitution of a strategic goal of education by a pragmatic purpose of a diploma, as well as excessive technologisation and universalization of formal education, which leads to a decrease in creative motivation of teachers and students. The proposed conclusions and observations are of interest to lifelong education researchers and managers of regional educational systems.
Potemkina T.

Key words: continuous professional development, continuous professional education program, administrators of educational institutions.

Problems in building continuous professional development programs for school administrators

The article identifies the problems of developing continuous professional education programs for school administrators. It describes the financial, economic, legal and socio-cultural conditions of contemporary school administrators’ activities. Based on a preliminary analysis of a modern school principal, the article shows the changes in their work conditions and identifies the new areas of professional responsibility. The author studies the research practice of school administrators’ professional development and analyzes the federal documents accompanying the development of general education. The basis for the proposed conclusions is the content of continuous professional education (CPE) short-term programs (25 to 180 study hours) presented on the websites of Institutions for Education Development and Institutions for Teachers’ Continuous Education (2014−2015 curriculum addressed to managers of educational organizations). The author has analyzed 115 CPE programs in 13 Russian Federation regions in order to identify the compliance of their topics with the federal priority areas of education development. The study shows that the processes of education modernization are the main directions of improving the content of these programs. The author also identifies specific features of how the topics of the programs found online are formulated. The study demonstrates that a significant number of continuous professional development programs lack clear titles, abstracts and curricula, which makes it complicated to get essential information about the content and make a conscious choice. Overall, the openness and accessibility of these programs is extremely low. The conclusions are addressed to methodology experts, instructors in the field of continuous professional education and developers of CPE programs for school principals. They can also be used for teaching purposes in training of students of «Education and Educational Sciences» programs.
Solomatin A.

Key words: professional community, voluntary nature, self-organization, innovative educational project.

The role of professional communities for the implementation of innovative educational projects

Taking into account the requirements of the Russian Federation federal regulatory and legal framework and the existing practices of the scientific and methodological services, the article examines specific features of the establishment and maintenance of teachers’ professional communities. The author considers these communities as a continuous education tool formed on the basis of internal (regional and municipal) associations of professionals who can discuss, suggest and find solutions to the topical issues of modern education. The article identifies and justifies voluntary nature and self-management as the main principles of community activity. It also identifies the following characteristics of professional community: homogeneity of its participants, multiple levels of interaction; the limited number of participants, community openness; interrelation between internal and external potential; multiple performance directions, etc. Through the example of the publishing house «Akademkniga/Uchebnik», the author demonstrates the re-sources of external partners that can improve the effectiveness of professional community activities. Based on the results of a project workshop held by a publishing house «Akademkni-ga/Uchebnik» on the expert platform with the participation of representatives from 24 regions of the Russian Federation in 2014 in the Moscow region, the supporting materials have been developed. They are aimed to support the participants and organizers of professional communities. The present article is of interest to education managers, scientific and methodological services staff and a wide range of teaching community representatives.
Chechel I.

Key words: post-industrial society; professional development; formal, non-formal, informal education; head of an educational organization; post-technocratic model; manager professional standard; competence-based approach.

Post-technocratic model of additional professional education (through the example of further professional education for heads of educational institutions)

The paper examines the modernization of a contemporary system of additional professional education, which aims at ensuring the continuous growth of professionalism among heads of educational institutions at the current stage of dynamic transition to a post-industrial society. The author identifies a number of factors hindering the development of a modern additional professional education system. The study analyzes professional development of a school principal on the basis of a competence-based approach, defines the concepts of competence and expertise, and justifies the importance of professional and personal competencies for a modern educational manager. Furthermore, the author proposes the model of educational manager professional standard, including the key, basic and special competencies. The author proposes a post-technocratic model of additional professional education for principals of educational institutions in accordance with modern international trends in continuing education and their adaptation to the Russian society, structure and regulatory framework of the Russian education system. Formal, non-formal and informal education is integrated in the system of additional professional education. The article explains the implementation of a post-technocratic model that ensures manager’s continuous professional development.